wk 3 discussion

Learning Goal: I’m working on a english discussion question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

Respond to 4 classmates 250 words each.

Classmate 1 colin: Good evening class,

Including methodological theory in research is important because it makes one sure that they are covering all their basis when researching something. As we have previously learned, it is important to make your research strong through various methods. To avoid confirmation bias, one may find data and research that supports their point. But in addition to this, a researcher must be able to conduct research and not be able to prove themselves wrong. This makes for the most sound argument for any topic.

One of the most important purposes that this serves is creating an acknowledgment of how our past and current experiences influence how we see the world. Media, who we associate with, how we were raised, and so many more factors go in to how we interpret what we consume and analyze as researchers. Not only that, but it impacts the way we interpret and thus produce our own material on any particular matter. Adding methodological theory helps a researcher get a more “fact-based” interpretation and dissemination of the material.

Inquiry paradigms play a supporting role in methodological research theory. Positivism (quantitative), interpretivism and critical theory (qualitative) are of most notable. Opposite of positivism is pragmatism, which takes a combination of different research approaches to explain a research question. Typically, research methods that are associated with quantitative OR qualitative research do not mix in the same piece of writing. This is due to the differential nature at how data is looked at between the two methods.

Understanding researched material through different lenses is something that I would like to continue doing. I know I need to continue to use other research methods as to deepen my ability to do sound research. The specifics of some of these research methodologies are new for me. Although I have heard of some of these inquiry paradigms, further understanding of these methods will absolutely be beneficial in better researching for papers.


Howell, Kerry E. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Methodology. London: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2013. https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781473957633.

Apple, Michael W., Ball, Stephen J., and Gandin, Luís Armando, eds. 2010. The Routledge International Handbook of the Sociology of Education. London: Taylor & Francis Group. Accessed June 24, 2022. ProQuest Ebook Central.

Classmate 2 robert Considering that social science research is a soft science, there is significant room for interpretation of data. There are considerations with biases, logical fallacies, and differing individual interpretations of things that are potential obstacles to understanding (Howard, 1993). One example I like to use, my wife has a bad habit of not throwing away her take out coffee cups. She leaves them on the counter next to the trash, but doesn’t put them in the trash. This drives me crazy because the trash can is right there, just throw it away. After some discussion, she did bring up how small of a thing that really is in the grand scheme of things. If it bothers me that much, I can just throw it away. So, the conclusion that I came to is that perhaps it’s not the coffee cup that is the problem, but my attitude about the coffee cup.

This same phenomenon happens everywhere in daily life. It could take the form of an employer who has a specific way they want things done that their employees don’t recognize the importance of. Or it could be a way of phrasing things that causes one person to think another may harbor malice towards them. This can also interfere with research, because there are undoubtedly fields that one person believes in that another believes is not worth all the work. Alternately, another researcher could agree that the field has value, but not agree with or understand your methods which could lead to obstacles with interpretation. By prescribing methodologies, we seek to standardize the perspective from which something is looked at (Carter & Little, 2007). This provides a framework from which research can begin instead of inventing your methodology from the ground up and allows you to describe in your results which theory was used which could then assist in the interpretation of the data.

During some of my more recent studies, I’ve come to the realization that the majority of things that people do in a given day, to speak in broad generalizations, is interact with systems that are either made by people or that exist in nature. It is our intrinsic understanding and ability to interact with these systems that defines our skill. In this way, seeking to standardize particular practices is our way of refining the best approaches to interacting with systems. As an example, I am an avid chess player, and there are an enormous amount of potential moves on the board leading into the midgame. If you study chess theory, you will see terms such as Queen’s gambit accepted and Queen’s gambit declined. This details a very specific position of pieces on the board that would be understood by others who study the game (Just & Burg, 2003). That is what research methodology seeks to establish. Commonly understood terminology within the field that helps communicate meaning to others.

Carter, S. M., & Little, M. (2007). Justifying Knowledge, Justifying Method, Taking Action: Epistemologies, Methodologies, and Methods in Qualitative Research. Qualitative Health Research, 17(10). https://doi.org/https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/1…

Howard, G. S. (1993). When psychology looks like a “soft” science, it’s for good reason! Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 13(1), 42–47. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0091107

Just, Tim, and Daniel B. Burg. U.S. Chess Federation’s Official Rules of Chess. Random House Puzzles & Games, 2003.

Classmate 3 connor: Methodological theory is important in scientific research and especially so in our research in the social sciences. Since there are many types of science, and many different researchers, each with their own ideas and hypothesis, research methods and process are inherently different. Due to this, methodological theory is used to assist the researcher in which type of research method would best fit the end goal or inquiry. By implementing methodological theory in the social sciences when developing a research plan, it is used to determine if the research is better fit to have qualitative data or quantitative, and how that data will best support the study as a whole. Howell describes theory as, “the very nature of knowledge (ontology), the relationship between humanity and knowledge (epistemology) and issues regarding the rigour required when developing or testing knowledge (methodology).” (Howell 2015) We can use the theory to question our techniques and question ourselves on why we are doing research a certain way. Along the same lines as methodological theory are inquiry paradigms, which in research gives an insight as to how the research methods were designed. Research paradigms form the philosophical base of research and inquiry paradigms specifically work to demonstrate how all the theory and philosophy fit together to develop the method. The goal of inquiry paradigms are all the same, which is explanation, “positivism looked for the verification of hypothesis, facts and laws whereas post-positivism pursued falsification.” (Howell 2015) In my last post I mentioned the importance of research looking to falsify the hypothesis so that the research remains as unbiased as possible, but also to allow for differentiating perspectives to be considered. Based on what the inquiry paradigms are and their impact, their role in the social sciences is to influence the methodology, they guide a researcher to credible and pertinent sources and link findings based on historical evidence and social facts.

Howell, Kerry E. 2015. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Methodology. London: SAGE Publications Ltd. Accessed June 21, 2022.

Classmate 4 Marcus: Good morning class,

I hope you all had a productive weekend and Happy Father’s Day to all the fathers. This week we will examine the purpose of incorporating the methodological theory within research. All forms of research contain theory in some form. Numerous theories throughout research can be explanatory or predictive in its’ approach when applied to research frameworks. According to Howell “Fundamentally, theory provides the means by which we are able to organize factual evidence that determines knowledge” (2013). The main objective relates to the various methods utilized to carry out desired research. Being that qualitative and quantitative strategies are based off diverse assumptions, it assists in determining the philosophical paradigm. However, these paradigms involve different approaches, and the researcher must select the most suitable for the construction of information and statement of research questions. Too, the methodological theory offers relevancy to the gathered information and generates a robust research framework.

Forum Discussion:Discuss some of the reasons why we include methodological theory in our research? What purpose does it serve? What role do inquiry paradigms play in research?

Inquiry paradigms play a major role in the world of research. Research paradigms are commonly referred to as theoretical or philosophical ground for the overall work. An inquiry paradigm are the underlying assumptions of what the research is attempting to address. Through these inquiry paradigms, we understand the reality (ontology), the relationship between research and reality (epistemology) and designated methods to be used while examining the reality (methodology) (Punch, 2016). There are two main perspectives described within epistemology to include positivism and interpretivism. Positivism identified facts such as cause and effect as the researcher measures and construct theories from then on. On the other hand, interpretivism, is more of subjective meaning involving the interpretations and perceptions of the researcher based on primary data sources. “Thus, research paradigms provide clear framework to the researcher for determining the type, nature and sources of knowledge that his/her research generates after the completion” (Khatri, 2020). From the readings, it is stated that the research paradigms are essential to the researcher for systematic research. It is important to understand that the reality of knowledge cannot be reached until figuring out the epistemology of research.


Howell, Kerry E. “Empiricism, Positivism and Post-Positivism.” In An Introduction to the Philosophy of Methodology, ,32-54. London: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2013. https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781473957633.

Khatri, Krishna Kumar. 2020. “Research Paradigm: A Philosophy of Educational Research.” International Journal of English Literature and Social Sciences 5 (5): 1435–40. https://doi.org/10.22161/ijels.55.15.

Punch, Keith. 2016. “Developing Effective Research Proposals.” SAGE Publications Ltd. March 2016. https://uk.sagepub.com/en-gb/eur/developing-effective-research-proposals/book245416#preview.

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